منظور از Modal Verb چیست؟
کلمه ی Modal از Mood، به معنای حالت، وجه، یا وضعیت ذهنی گرفته شده است. عبارت Modal Verbs شاید برای ما فارسی زبان ها نامأنوس باشد، چراکه در دستور زبان فارسی معادل دقیق و یا حتا ترجمه ی عرف شده یی برای اشاره به آن نداریم. اما به بیان ساده، Modal Verb ها افعالی کمکی هستند که میزان قطعیت یا احتمال انجام یا وقوع عملی را مشخص می کنند.
Modal های اصلی و متداول چه هستند؟
Modal های متداول در انگلیسی شامل موارد ذیل هستند:
- Can Could
- Will Would
- May Might
- Shall Should
معنای هر کدام از Modal ها چیست؟
حال معنای Modal های بالا چیست، و برای بیان چه منظوری استفاده می شوند؟ در ادامه خواهیم گفت. اما جهت بهتر متوجه شدن کاربرد این Modal ها، ابتدا داستان مختصر ذیل را بخوانید که در آن انواع Modal ها بارها استفاده شده است. در پایان داستان هر یک از Modal های اصلی را جز به جز، و کامل تشریح خواهیم کرد:
The ﬁrst hint of trouble was when I saw the big black Buick roaring down my lane. I didn’t recognize the car. But the way the guy drove, he was either showing off or too stupid to realize he’d blow his shocks in six months. Too late, he slammed on the brakes and skidded to a stop in a spray of gravel, ﬂattening my front gate, hanging by a piece of chicken wire, but still…!
A few choices swear words came to my mind but died when the guy unfolded himself from the car. Six foot and easily two-ﬁfty. Beer gut and a couple of extra chins, but I doubted that would slow him down much.
He wiped the dust off his bumper and inspected it. That seemed to take forever, as if he was daring me to start something. I didn’t, even though I could feel my blood beginning to boil.
Finally, he shrugged, reached in to his front seat and took out an envelope. “Are you Cedric Elvis O’toole?!”
I should have just said yes, but I didn’t like his tone. Besides, I hadn’t been called that in so long, I’d almost forgotten it was my real name. What can I say? My mother had always expected Elvis to sweep in and marry her, but he died the day I was born. When she got over the shock, she decided Cedric would make a better name for a doctor anyway.
When you are from a scrubby backcountry farm, who was going to set you straight?!
I’ve been calling myself Rick ever since Barry Mitchell Laughed out loud at roll call the ﬁrst day of kindergarten.
توضیح و تشریح:
در تصویر ذیل، میزان شدت و قطعیت Modal ها را مشاهد می کنید:
اکنون توضیحات هر یک از Modal های استفاده شده در داستان بالا را بخوانید. در ادامه برای هر یک از Modal های اصلی چندین مثال آورده ایم، موقعیت استفاده از آن ها را توضیح داده ایم، حالت محاوره یی و روزمره ی آن ها را آورده ایم، و نهایتن فرمول و نحوه ی قرار گرفتن آن ها را در جمله توضیح داده ایم.
Could have, Should have, Would have (Couldda’, Shouldda’, Wouldda’):
- We use should have and could have + Past participle to talk about unreal past situations that are the opposite of what really happened.
- The mail should have been here yesterday. (But it was not)
- I could have landed a better-paying job. (But I did not)
- I would have written a letter to the company if you had asked me to.
- You should have tried to reason with him. (But you didn’t)
- You should have tried to convince him. (But you didn’t)
- You should have stuck to your previous plan. (But you did not)
- I should have gone on a diet. (But I did not)
- Can you think of a few things you would have, could have, or should have done differently when you landed in Canada?
A few more examples
- I could have been killed in the car crash yesterday, if I had been in the car. (But I was not in the car so I was not killed)
- You can express probability in the past with different degrees of certainty using “May” or “Must”.
- I cannot find my credit card; I must have left it in the car > I may have left it in the car.
- I must have left it in the car means: you are almost certain that you have left it in the car where as I may have left it in the car means you are not certain.
Modal verb+ have+ past participle
- I had placed some meat on the kitchen-table when I go to the kitchen there isn’t any meat on the table. These are the following scenarios:
- The window is opened. There footprints of a cat, but I don’t see the cat. (it is possible that cat stole my meat)
The cat might have stolen my meat.
The cat could have stolen my meat.
- The window is opened. I check outside from the window the cat is over there, seems it is eating something.
The cat must have stolen my meat.
I shouldn’t have placed my meat over there.
حالا برای مهارت بیشتر در مورد نکته های گرامری مطرح شده در بالا:
- تمامی Modal های موجود در داستان را پیدا کنید.
- پنج مثال برای Modal هایی که بررسی کردیم بنویسید و در بخش کامنت های قرار بدهید، تا برایتان تصحیح شان کنیم.